AR Graphs Improve Comprehension over 2D

AR > 2D

Most mind maps are shown as 2D views of a graph with central nodes.   It is generally better for comprehension to see and interact with a 3D version of the same graph to understand the relations between its nodes.

In the paper Using augmented reality for visualizing complex graphs in three dimensions by D. Belcher, M. Billinghurst, S Hayes, and R. Stiles, published in the International Society for Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) 2003, the study results (link) showed that there is a significant advantage with reduced error for 3D views over 2D views of the same graph when trying to determine if nodes are connected (linked) to each other, which is a key capability when trying to comprehend a graph (or mind map).

The study shows that this improvement of 3D views and interaction with complex graphs also transfers to augmented reality, and not just desktop 3D.  In the graph from the paper, you can see significantly reduced node link comprehension error for 3D desktop and AR over the conventional 2D case, and this relationship holds as the number of nodes in the scene scales up.

 

Method of Loci Significantly Improves Recall

Method of Loci Significantly Improves Recall

A study of the method of loci, entitled “Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory” published in the March 2017 issue of Neuron by scientists at Stanford University, the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, and the Donders Institute  shows the effectiveness of mnemonic training, specifically the method of loci, which results in significant recall improvement across time periods of twenty minutes, one day, and four months. Even after four months, the group using the method of loci had more than a 20% level of improvement in recall over the active and passive control groups.

The study included using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the subjects, testing their recall of words, and then comparing their before and after MRIs with memory athletes. They found the method of loci subject’s connections across brain centers came to resemble the memory athlete’s. In their study they show with a figure of the brain’s MRI connections the noticeable difference in connections between memory athletes and controls and indicate this improvement from using the method of loci may result from improved connections (links) across brain areas.

This study does not include AR or VR elements, but it does emphasize the use of the method of loci, where mental images of locations are used to recall items.  In our Loci software, we functionally support placing objects in places for later recall consistent with the method of loci.

Import to Loci

Get Loci for PC/MR on Windows Store
PC/MR-HMD

Loci currently imports three file types; MindManager, Freemind / Freeplane, and GraphML.  Here we provide an overview of the formats, our import of the format, and usage in Loci.

Loci has its own file format based on JSON, which has the file extension *.loci.  It supports concepts of graph, node and edges for general graphs.  Our initial import capability imports nodes, implicit MindMap relations (links), explicit relations, colors, urls, notes, and titles, and 2D positions where possible.

The Loci voice command to import is to say “Load Graph” which will use the system file browser to find files with extensions Loci can import.  Once imported, you may wish to use “Graph Reset” followed by “Graph Layout” to use our force directed layout in 3D.

The MindManager format has the extension *.mmap and is actually zipped (compressed) xml based text.  It is generally a strict mind map format and not a full graph format, in that it expects one or more central nodes.  MindManager is a capable 2D mind mapping tool for Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android that has scheduling capabilities, and different 2D views.

The Freemind and associated Freeplane format has the extension *.mm and is an unzipped xml format file.  Like MindManager, it expects central nodes, with implicit links (edges) to nodes nested within it.    Freemind and Freeplane are  java based open source 2D mind mapping tools available for Windows, Mac and Linux, and are widely used as an intermediate mind map format for exchange between systems.  We tested our import using Freeplane, which is a fork and likely superset of the Freemind app and format.

The GraphML format has the extension *.graphml and is xml based.  It primarily uses the abstraction of nodes and edges (links).  It allows for a wide variety of graphs, a superset of mind maps.  This includes freestanding nodes, graphs with cycles, and bi-directional graphs.  And of course it allows for typed edges (links, relations) between nodes, while in Mind Map applications such relations are an exception.   The variety of GraphML we have tested on has been produced by yEd, a free 2D java based graph editor available for Windows, Mac and Linux with nice automated layout capabilities.

VR Memory Palace Study Shows Recall Improvement

VR Locations Aid Recall in Study

At the University of Maryland College Park, Krokos et al recently published a paper  “Virtual memory places: immersion aids recall“, which shows more than 8% recall improvement of a VR memory palace over a desktop memory palace.

The authors provide a nice overview of related work and then describe their study which compared desktop 3D scenes and virtual reality scenes (Head Mount Display – HMD) of a palace and a medieval town as locations to use the method of loci for recall.

The memory task the study participants were to do was recalling two sets of faces and names they saw in these two scenes after two minutes.  Strangely, they allowed study participants to rotate their view, but not to translate (move around).  Even with this limitation in their study, they found there was a statistically significant effect favoring the HMD (VR) display over the desktop display.  Study participants were better able to recall items by 8.8% overall average difference using the HMD over the desktop display.

We have released Loci Memory Palace app for Windows Mixed Reality, which is a virtual reality memory palace populated with nodes and links that are part of your mind map graphs.  With Loci Memory Palace, you can move around your memory palace and make mind maps by placing nodes in locations that help you recall.  Our Loci app is available now on the Microsoft Store here.

Get Loci for PC/MR on Windows Store
PC/MR-HMD

With Loci Memory Palace, you can load images from files and place them in the memory palace, moving yourself and the nodes around in full six degree of freedom.  When compared to the conditions of this study, there is more involvement of your body in placing, naming, editing, and associating nodes, and because of this embodiment, involving more of your senses and thoughts, an even greater improvement in recall from using Loci than this study is likely.  Your recall of your notes and ideas is available to you even when you are not using our software.

Krokos, Eric & Plaisant, Catherine & Varshney, Amitabh. (2018). Virtual memory palaces: immersion aids recall. Virtual Reality. 10.1007/s10055-018-0346-3.

Abstract: Virtual reality displays, such as head-mounted displays (HMD), afford us a superior spatial awareness by leveraging our vestibular and proprioceptive senses, as compared to traditional desktop displays. Since classical times, people have used memory palaces as a spatial mnemonic to help remember information by organizing it spatially and associating it with salient features in that environment. In this paper, we explore whether using virtual memory palaces in a head-mounted display with head-tracking (HMD condition) would allow a user to better recall information than when using a traditional desktop display with a mouse-based interaction (desktop condition). We found that virtual memory palaces in HMD condition provide a superior memory recall ability compared to the desktop condition. We believe this is a first step in using virtual environments for creating more memorable experiences that enhance productivity through better recall of large amounts of information organized using the idea of virtual memory palaces.

Image of training and test memory palaces for this post is from this paper, used under creative commons license.

Method of Loci

Cicero Denounces Catiline by Maccari

The method of loci is a memory technique used in ancient Greece and Rome where you imagine a building, and mentally place the items you must remember at locations in the building. Then later you recall these items as you mentally walk through the building and view them in the locations you pass. As this New York Times article on the method of loci describes, the first known published description of this method was in Rhetorica ad Herennium in 80 B.C.  Cicero also describes this method in his work De Oratore.

A study of the method of loci published in March 2017 by scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, the Donders Institute, and Stanford University on the effectiveness of the method of loci showed this technique results in significant recall improvement across time periods of twenty minutes, one day, and four months. Even after four months, the group using the method of loci had more than a 20% level of improvement in recall over the active and passive control groups.

The study included using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the subjects, and then comparing their before and after MRIs with memory athletes. They found the method of loci subject’s connections across brain centers came to resemble the memory athlete’s. In their study they show with a figure of the brain’s MRI connections the noticeable difference in connections between memory athletes and controls and indicate this improvement from using the method of loci may result from improved connections (links) across brain areas.

Our Loci app is available now for Windows Mixed Reality on the Microsoft Store here.  Using Loci, you link in your mind. You place nodes with camera or file images, web links, or text at locations in your home and office. You can link them to form mind map graphs or you can leave them unattached as a form of pinned note. In either case you have placed them in a location, reinforcing your memory of them for recall at any time, even when not using the Loci application. Furthermore, you can share your mind map graphs with others, taking the method of loci from one person’s internal thoughts to an external visualization that can be communicated digitally with other contributors.

Method Loci Significantly Improves Recall

VR Memory Palace Study Shows Recall Improvement

AR Graphs Improve Comprehension over 2D

Mind Map Study Shows Improvement in Recall

Keith Boesky of ODG emphasizes AR Data Visualization

At AWE 2017 Keith Boesky states, “This is a huge one for me, Data Visualization. How much more do you see when you go to a 3D model on your screen than a flat screen?  How much more are you going to see when you’re able to put your glasses on with full awareness of what’s around you, with full awareness of everybody in the room with you, and be able to walk amongst your data set? I think that’s huge! I think it is going to change things as much is the spreadsheet did.

 

Yarn and Photos In Movies and TV

Loci can be used for many things since it is for general analysis.

Analysis in Movies and TV often involves links of string or yarn, pictures of people and maps, all of which are possible using Loci, and since Loci is digital, you can modify them easily, move them, and use the same space for different versions.

One example of red yarn on physical objects and miniatures on TV is the opening credits for the 11.22.63 series.  Another is the opening credits for Person of Interest.

The Big Board
String Theory
Crime Map

Graphs

Loci is a general graph editor that supports mind map graphs. Graphs consist of nodes and edges. We call nodes with locations loci, and edges associating loci we call links.

node + location in real world = locus (loci is plural)
edge = relation = association = link

Many items in life can be understood using graphs. From molecules to web page links to friends of your friends, you can think of things as the nodes, and relations between them as the links.

Graphs are used in mathematics, physics, and informatics as underlying representations for solving problems.  Graph data structures are used for 3D games to manage the application of transformations, and Loci itself uses such a scene graph to draw all the things it shows.

Most mind map software requires a central concept node, and links to other nodes, with no node being unlinked, and all being directly, or indirectly connected to the central node.  Loci does not require that.   Nodes can be solitary, or multiply connected.   In this way we support the analysis process from end to end.   You can make unlinked notes for things as you observe them, or your ideas as you come upon them, then orient your thoughts by linking them together to make sense of them.